Author : Um Rumman Siti Fatimah
Muraja’ah : Ustadz Abu Ukkasyah Aris
Time of delivery is one of the most thrilling moments for a woman . Because this moment is part of the greatest jihad women . Where a woman who died in childbirth even including human groups that martyrdom ( HR . Abu Dawud and Ahmad ) . After this moment , a woman will start a new chapter of his life being a mother who has an obligation to educate their children . And best of education For the child is with religious education .
Apparently, this moment did not escape the attention of law because at the time of delivery woman will bleed childbirth . As menstruation & istihadhah , postpartum blood including blood type common in women . Therefore , the Muslim should know the laws regarding postpartum blood.
Does the Ruling Blood ??
Childbirth is the blood that comes out of the womb due to childbirth . Both blood came out simultaneously when the birthing process , before or after giving birth , which is accompanied with felt would give birth signs , such as pain , etc . Referred pain is pain that followed Natal . If the blood that comes out is not accompanied by pain , or accompanied by pain but not followed with the birth of a baby , then it is not blood childbirth .
In addition , the blood coming out of the womb with a new called postpartum if the woman gave birth to a baby who has a human form . If a woman has a miscarriage and when removed the fetus is not human form , then the blood that came out was not blood childbirth . Blood is doomed blood disease (istihadhah) which did not prevent from prayer , fasting and worship.
Ukhty need to know that the shortest time fetal human form is eighty days starting from the first day of pregnancy. And some have argued ninety days .
As the hadeeth of Ibn Mas’ud sradhiyallahu ‘ anhu , that the Prophet sallallaahu ‘ alaihi wa sallam told us , and he sallallaahu ‘ alaihi wa sallam is the right and who got the news is true, ” Surely someone of you gathered creation within the abdomen mother for 40 days in the form of nuthfah , then became ‘ alaqah like it anyway , then became mudhghah like it anyway . Then an angel sent him to breathe the spirit in them , and commanded him For write four things , namely write rizkinya , death , charity , and wretched or happy . ” ( HR . Bukhari & Muslim )
According to Ibn Taymiyyah , ” When a woman is found blood and pain before period ( minimum ) it , it would not be considered as childbirth . However, if after a minimum period , then he is not praying and fasting . Then if after birth was not in accordance with reality ( the unborn human – shaped pen ) then he immediately went back to work obligations . But if it turns out so ( the baby is a human – shaped pen ) , remain applicable law by the fact that it needs no re- work obligations . ” ( Book Syarhul IQNA ‘ )
In summary we can conclude several things to identify with blood childbirth :
Childbirth is the blood that comes out of the womb due to give birth , either before , simultaneously or after childbirth
Accompanied with signs of delivery ( such as pain , etc. ) followed with the birth process
Babies born / issued already in human form ( there is a head, body and other parts of the body such as the hands and feet , although not perfectly correct )
Postpartum Discharge Old Blood
Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al- Uthaymeen dlm Minutes of fid Dima ‘ Ath – lin Thabi’iyah Nisa said that the scholars differed as to whether the existing childbirth minimum and maximum limits .
The Shaykh ‘ Abdul ‘ Azhim bin Abdullah al Khalafi hydrofoil Al Wajiz FII Fiqhis Sunnah wal Kitabil ‘ Aziz said that there puerperal maximum limit , which is forty days . His opinion is based on the hadith of Umm Salamah radi ‘ anha . Umm Salamah radi ‘ anha said , “Women who do not pray at parturition time of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘ alaihi wa sallam for forty days . ” ( HR . Ibn Majah and Tirmidhi . Saheeh hasan hadeeth ) . Forty days counted from the discharge of blood , the blood either out simultaneously , before or after childbirth .
Strong opinions inshaa God , basically there is no minimum or maximum limits the length of time postpartum . Forty days is the habit of most of the women . However, if before the forty days the woman was holy , then he shall bathe and do the obligatory worship again .
Regarding the amount of blood , nor is there a limit is more or less . Blood during childbirth is still out then she is not obliged to shower (purification).
In summary , there are some women who are postpartum conditions :
Postpartum blood stopped out before 40 days and not come out again afterwards . Then she shall baths ( purification ) and then perform another obligatory worship , such as prayer and fasting , etc .
Postpartum blood stopped out before the 40 days , but then the blood out again before the 40th day . So , if he stops blood bath ( purification ) for prayer and fasting . If the blood out , he had to leave the prayer and fasting . However , if the cessation of blood less than a day , it would not be judged holy .
Postpartum blood kept coming out and only stopped after the 40th day . Then she had to shower ( purification ) .
Blood continues out to exceed 40 days . There are a few conditions :
Postpartum blood stop menstrual bleeding continued ( cessation of menstruation period coincides postpartum blood ) , then she still left the prayer and fasting . Blood coming out after 40 days doomed menstrual blood . The new woman shall baths ( purification ) after menstrual blood does not come out again .
Blood stay out after 40 days and does not coincide with the habit of the menstrual period , scholars have different opinions on this matter . According to scholars who argue that the maximum duration is 40 days postpartum , assess blood loss after 40 days as a blood fasadh ( disease ) whose status is as istihadhah . Meanwhile, according to scholars who argue that there is no minimum and maximum time limit childbirth , they examined the blood that comes out after 40 days remain as puerperal blood . This opinion is stronger , God willing .
However , if you want to be careful , after 40 days assessed sacred . So she purification For praying and fasting , although blood remains out . However, this does not apply to the two circumstances :
There is a sign that the blood would stop / fewer . Then she waited blood stopped out , then showers ( purification )
There is a habit of the previous birth , then it is used . For example , she has experienced several times the length of 50 days postpartum . Then this limit is used .
Things are Forbidden for Women who Ruling
The scholars agreed that the post-partum women who are forbidden to do anything that is forbidden for women who are menstruating . Among other things,
Women who menstruation and childbirth haram to pray fard and sunnah , and they do not need to replace it when the sacred . ( Ibn Hazm in his book al – Muhalla dlm )
Postpartum women who are not allowed to perform mandatory or sunnah fasting . However, he is obliged to make up the obligatory fasting which he left in the puerperium . Based on the hadith of Aisha radi ‘ anha , ” When we were having periods , we were commanded to make up the fasts and not commanded to make up the prayers. ” ( Muttafaq ‘ alaih )
Menstruation and post-partum women are forbidden conduct circumambulating the Ka’bah , either mandatory or sunnah , and legitimate tidah thawafnya . Prophet sallallaahu ‘ alaihi wa sallam said to Aisha radi ‘ anha , ” Do what the pilgrims do , just do not do tawaf until ye holy Ka’bah . ” ( HR . Bukhari & Muslim )
Jima ‘ .
( see sub- heading ” Legal Husband Wife Mingled with being Ruling ” )
Bleh not divorced .
Forbidden for a husband to divorce his wife who is menstruating or childbirth . Allaah says , which means , ” O Prophet , when you divorce women then be ye divorce them at the time they can ( face ) iddahnya ( naturally ) . ” ( Qs . Ath – Thalaq : 1 )
Laws Regarding Ruling
There is no legal difference between menstruation and childbirth , except for a few things below :
If the woman is not pregnant , the prescribed period is calculated with menstruation , not with childbirth . As the word of Allah, the Exalted , ” The women who divorced let restraint ( wait ) three times quru ‘ … ” ( QS . Al – Baqarah : 228 )
According to Shaykh Muhammad bin Salih Al- Uthaymeen , which meant ‘ quru ‘ is menstruation , and this opinion is stronger , insyaa God . Therefore , the prescribed period is calculated based on the period, instead of childbirth . Therefore , if a husband divorces his wife before giving birth , age iddahnya depleted due to childbirth , not because of childbirth . As if a husband divorces his wife after the birth, the iddahnya period is until his wife got 3 times menstruation .
2. The period of Ila ‘
Ila ‘ is a man vows For not doing jima ‘ to her forever , or more than four months . After a period of four months , when the wife asks For related , then the husband must choose between jima ‘ or divorced .
Menstrual period including the count period ila ‘ , whereas during childbirth is not . So , if a husband vowed to never berjima ‘ with his wife , while his wife was juncture childbirth , the period ila ‘ set of four months plus puerperium . After that , when the wife asked to perform jima ‘ , the husband must choose whether jima ‘ or divorced .
3. Balighnya woman is calculated from the time of the first period , not childbirth .
Mingled with the law husband wife being Ruling
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah rahimahullah said , ” intercourse postpartum women as well as women with menstruation , is haraam according to the agreement of scholars . ” ( See Majmoo ‘ Fataawa )
Allaah says , which means , ” They ask thee concerning women menstruation , then say , ” That menstruation is a dirt , then you do not approach them before they are holy . ” ( QS . Al – Baqarah : 222 )
A husband may just flirt wife who was not until jima puerperal origin ‘ . But when it comes to happen Jima ‘ , the scholars disagree whether mandatory pay kaffarah ( fines ) or not ( See al – Mughni by Ibn Qudamah Imam rahimahullah ) .
Opinions stronger , God willing , shall pay kaffarah . It is based on the hadith of Ibn Abbas sradhiyallahu ‘ anhu . Of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘ alaihi wa sallam , when talking about a husband who interfere with his wife at the time of menstruation , the Prophet said , ” Let he bershadaqah one dinar or half a dinar . ” ( Saheeh Ibn Majah no: 523 , ‘ Aunul Ma’bud 1 : 445 no: 261 , Nasa’ai I: 153 , Ibn Majah 1 : 210 no: 640 . this hadith classed as saheeh by al – Albani )
As if a woman has a sacred of childbirth before 40 days , most scholars have argued that the husband was forbidden to menggaulinya . And this is a strong opinion . Because there is no proof that forbid Shar’ie .
There is only the history of Imam Ahmad of Uthman ibn Abu Al – Ash that his wife came to him before forty days , then he said , “Do not come near me ! ” However , Uthman speech does not mean an illicit intercourse with her husband . Uthman attitude may arise because of prudence , which worried his wife is not a sacred right , or fear can lead to bleeding caused by intercourse or anything else . ( See al – Sunnah wal Wajiz FII Fiqhis Kitabil ‘ Aziz )
Therefore , if on a husband or wife of doubt , let ascertain first , whether the wife has really pure from the blood nifasnya . Because medically , jima ‘ safe to do when the wife has gone through during childbirth , unless when the wife directly experienced menstruation , bleeding , or are undergoing a particular therapy . If still in doubt , let consult with a doctor . Is the wife’s condition was normal and totally recovered medically that can be interfered with by her husband . Because of this condition in the event of every woman is different . A Muslim should not do something dangerous and harmful to others .
Allaah Almighty knows best.
Maraaji ‘ :
Al Wajiz fii Fiqhis Sunnah wal Kitabil ‘ Aziz ( trans . ) , Shaykh ‘ Abdul ‘ Azhim bin Abdullah al Khalafi ( Library Sunnah )
Blood Habits Women ( translation treatise fid Dima ‘ Ath – lin Thabi’iyah Nisa ) , Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al- Uthaymeen ( publisher of Darul Haq )
Note Daurah Muslim ” Habits Blood Women ” by Ustadz Abu Ukkasyah Aris , 2007
The study notes Al Wajiz by cleric muslam, 2004
source : http://www.muslimah.or.id