Understanding the Meaning of Jihad


No doubt that jihad is the good deeds that God syari’atkan and be sturdy and glory because Muslims. Conversely (getting humiliation) when Muslims leave jihad in Allah’s way, as described in the hadith that shohih [1],

عن ابن عمر قال سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول إذا تبايعتم بالعينة وأخذتم أذناب البقر ورضيتم بالزرع وتركتم الجهاد سلط الله عليكم ذلا لا ينزعه حتى ترجعوا إلى دينكم

From Ibn ‘Umar, he said: I heard the Prophet sallallaahu’ alaihi wa sallam said, “If you have buying and selling ‘inah, taking cattle and agriculture as well pleased with abandon jihad that Allah will afflict you humility (humiliation). God does not pull it out of you until you return to your religion. “(HR. Abu Daud)

Ibn Taymiyyah stated, “There is no doubt that jihad against those who menyelisihi the apostles and directing their swords to the law and perform the duties due to their statements to help the prophets and apostles, and to be a lesson for those who take it so that those people who deviate be cured, including the most important practices that God commanded us to make worship closer to Him “[2].

However, these good deeds must be sincere and qualified in accordance with Islamic Shari’a because both of these are acceptable terms of practice. In addition to the jihad is not easy for the soul and have a relationship with the shedding of blood, life and property that became the great case in Islam as stated by the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam in his saying,

فإن دماءكم و أعراضكم وأموالكم عليكم حرام كحرمة يومكم هذا في شهركم هذا في بلدكم هذا إلى يوم تلقون ربكم ألا هل بلغت قالوا نعم قال اللهم اشهد فليبلغ الشاهد الغائب فرب مبلغ أوعى من سامع فلا ترجعوا بعدي كفارا يضرب بعضكم رقاب بعض

“Behold the blood, honor and treasure you are forbidden upon you (mutual menzholiminya) like the sanctity of this day, this month and in your country until you find your Robb. Know whether I have delivered? “They replied,” Yes “. Then he also said, “O Allah persaksikanlah, let those in attendance to convey to that is not present, because sometimes that delivered a better understanding of the hearing immediately. So do not you go back kufr after me, most of you guys kill each other in part. “(Agreed upon) [3]

So great is the case jihad requires every Muslim to do so for reaching love and pleasure of Allah. Of course this requires the culprit for commitment to the Shari’ah rules and restrictions, limitations and legal commitment to the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, to realize the goals and objectives of the Shari’ah without leaving the provisions and limitations, in order to survive of extreme and excessive attitude that jihad becomes jihad shar’ie above the straight and he get a result and a great reward in the Hereafter later. It was because he was walking on the divine light, guidance and knowledge of the Qur’an and the Sunnah of His Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam. [4]

Therefore, it is the duty of every Muslim to learn about the Islamic concept of jihad is true, and ask the scholars inheritors of the prophets have not the things he knew. Moreover, the problem is very important and this dangerous, again in the future of the Muslims do not recognize syari’atnya properly. Because it could be considered jihad jihad syar’i actually a heresy.

Understanding Jihad in Islamic view

The word is derived from the word Jihad Al Jahd (الجهد) with significant difathahkan jimnya letter fatigue and distress or from Al Juhd (الجهد) with didhommahkan letter jimnya meaningful ability. Sentence (بلغ جهده) issued a significant ability. So that those who strive path of Allah is the one who reaches exhaustion because God and exalt his words that make it as a way and the path to heaven. Behind the battling spirit of jihad and jihad with the sword, no heart jihad jihad against Satan and prevent the soul from lust and forbidden lust. Also there is jihad by hand and oral form of commanding the good and forbidding unjust. [5]

While Ibn Rushd (died 595 H) said, “Jihad by the sword is the fight against the unbelievers of religion, so that all those who trouble themselves to the One God and he has been striving in the way of Allah. However, the word jihad is called simply sabilillah when it is not understood in addition to the meaning of the fight against the disbelievers with the sword to convert to Islam or give tribute in a state of low and despicable “[6].

Ibn Taymiyyah (died 728H) defines jihad with the statement, “Jihad means to mobilize all abilities: the ability to get a loved one who hated God and reject God” [7].

In other places, he rahimahullah also states, “Jihad is essentially a conscientious achieve something that God loved form of faith and pious deeds and reject anything that God hates the form of kufr, wickedness and immorality” [8].

It seems that the three above opinion agreed in defining jihad according to Islamic law, only use sabilillah lafadz jihad in the statements of the scholars are usually used to fight the infidels meaning. Therefore, Shaykh ‘Abdurrazaq bin’ Abdul Muhsin Al ‘Abaad stated that the best definition of jihad is the definition above Ibn Taymiyyah and he states: It is understood from the above statement of Ibn Taymiyyah that jihad in the sense Shar’ie is a term that includes the use of all causes and ways to realize our actions and beliefs (I’tiqad) that God loved and ridhoi and reject actions, speech and belief that God hates and God provoked. [9]

Types and Levels of Jihad

The word jihad when many people hear the connotation is jihad fighting the infidels. And this is just one of the forms and types of jihad because jihad is more common understanding and wider than that. Therefore, Imam Ibn al-Qayyim explained the types of jihad in terms of its object by stating that jihad has four levels, namely (1) lust fight jihad, (2) Jihad fight satan, (3) jihad fighting the infidels and (4) fight jihad hypocrites. [10] However, in the subsequent description of Ibn al-Qayyim adds to the jihad against the perpetrators kezhaliman, heresy and munkar. [11]

Then he explains the 13 level for the types of jihad in the above by stating that the fight against lust jihad has four levels:
1. Jihad fight for divine guidance and learning the right religion is the source of luck and happiness in this life and the afterlife. Who lost the science of this guide it will be miserable in the world and the hereafter.
2. Jihad fight to practice it after mengilmuinya. If not, then just simply mengilmuinya without charity, if not harm it, it will not benefit.
3. Jihad fight to preach and teach that knowledge to those who do not know it. Otherwise, he was among those who hid clues and explanations which Allah has sent down. And knowledge is useless and does not save him from the wrath of God.
4. Jihad fight to brave to face the difficulties of preaching, disorders and patient person because God put him.
If this has been a perfect four-dignity he includes Robbaniyyun. This is because of the Salaf agreed stating that an alim (scholar) not be called Robbani until he knows the truth, practice and teach. So the people of knowledge, charity and teach it alone is called upon as a great man in the celestial world.

The devil fight jihad has two levels:
1. The fight to reject doubtful and doubt that the faith that satan directed to the slave.
2. The fight to reject bad and lust keingininan the devil threw him.
The first jihad (overcome doubtful) performed with confidence and the second jihad (overcome lust) with patience. Allaah says,

وجعلنا منهم أئمة يهدون بأمرنا لما صبروا وكانوا بآياتنا يوقنون

“And We made between them that the leaders who guide by Our command when they sabar.Dan is they believe in Our Signs.” (QS. As-Sajda: 24). God explained that the religious leadership is only obtained with patience and confident, and with patience he refuses lust and desires damaged and with sure he refused doubts and doubtful.

While jihad fighting the infidels and hypocrites have four levels, namely the liver, oral, property and lives. Jihad fight against pagans more specifically by hand while fighting jihad Munafiq more specifically with the oral.

Medium jihad combat kezholiman actors, kebid’ahan and munkar has 3 levels: (1) by hand if able, (2) if it is not able, move on oral, (3) when it is not able to then denied by the liver.

Here thirteen dignity Jihad and anyone who dies and has not fought, and never to whisper his soul to fight then died on the branch kemunafiqan [12] [13].

From the description of Ibn al-Qayyim in the above can be taken a few lessons:

  1. Many Muslims understand jihad jihad just fighting the infidels course, this is a partial understanding.
  2. It is supposed to be a Muslim start with jihad jihad fi sabilillah nafsi to obey God by fighting spirit for studying and understanding the religion (din) of Islam to understand the Qur’an and Sunnah according to the understanding of the pious Salaf. Then the whole science of its practice, since the purpose of science is practiced. Afterwards, he was battling spirit to preach invite the people to science and charity and patience from all the distractions and obstacles when learning, charity and preaching. This is the lust fight jihad which is the biggest jihad and take precedence over any other kind.

Ibn al-Qayyim rahimahullah states, “Jihad fight against the enemies of God are beyond the (soul) is a branch of jihad fighting the soul, as the words of the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaih wa sallam,

والمجاهد من جاهد نفسه في طاعة الله والمهاجر من هجر ما نهى الله عنه

“Mujahid are those who strive to combat his life in obedience to God and Muhajir is the one who emigrated from the ban of God.” (HR. Ahmad 6/21, saheeh isnaad, -ed)

Then the soul fight jihad jihad precedence over fighting the enemies of God outside (the soul), and became its parent. Because people are not jihad (combat) soul beforehand to carry out orders and leave the ban, and not fight in Allah’s way, then he can not fight the enemy outside. How he was able to fight his jihad when beside powerful enemy and occupied it, and yet he jihadi and fighting. He may not even be able to leave the fight against the enemy before he departed soul to fight jihad jihad? “[14] Jihad is obligatory or mental combat fard ‘ayn can not be represented by others, because jihad is a personal touch with every person. [15] 3. The scholars explained that Satan tempt people door there are two, namely lust and doubtful. Satan came to man and see if he is a weak faith, and a bit of obedience to God, the devil pulled through the streets or door lust. When satan find it extremely strong commitment to his religion and faith that he will pull out of the door doubtful, doubts and plunge to kebid’ahan [16].

Jihad against Satan is ruling fard ‘ayn as well as directly related to every human person, as the word of God,

إن الشيطان لكم عدو فاتخذوه عدوا

“Verily Satan is an enemy that is real to you, so treat him as an enemy (mu).” (Surah. Fatir: 6)

  1. Jihad against the disbelievers and the hypocrites do in the liver, oral, property and life as spoken Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam in the hadeeth of Anas bin Malik something from’ anhu,

جاهدوا المشركين بأموالكم وأنفسكم وألسنتكم

“Fight the idolaters with the treasure, the soul and spoken of you.” (HR. Abu Dawud no. 2504, An Nasai no. 3096 and Ahmad 3/124. Shaykh Al-Albani said that this hadeeth saheeh, -ed)

Understanding Jihad by the heart against the unbelievers and the hypocrites are hated them and do not give loyalty and love and happy with their humility and humiliation, and other attitudes that exist in the Qur’an and the Sunnah of the heart.

Understanding Jihad by the tongue is to explain the truth, denied misguidance and vice-sleaze them with proof and concrete evidence.

Understanding Jihad with their wealth is to spend their wealth in Allah’s way in case of war or jihad propaganda and to help and assist the Muslims. As for jihad with the soul intention is to fight them with hands and arms until they convert to Islam or defeat, as the word of God,

وقاتلوهم حتى لا تكون فتنة ويكون الدين لله فإن انتهوا فلا عدوان إلا على الظالمين

“Fight them so that there is no longer slander and (so) that religion is for God alone. If they cease (from hostile to you), then there is no hostility (again), except against wrongdoers. “(QS. Al-Baqarah: 193)
And His Word,

قاتلوا الذين لا يؤمنون بالله ولا باليوم الآخر ولا يحرمون ما حرم الله ورسوله ولا يدينون دين الحق من الذين أوتوا الكتاب حتى يعطوا الجزية عن يد وهم صاغرون

“Fight those who believe not in Allah and not (also) on the day then and they do not forbid that which has been forbidden by Allah and His Messenger and do not belong to the religion of truth (Islam), (ie people) who given them the Book, until they pay the Jizya with willing submission they are in a state of subjection. “(QS. at-Tawbah: 29)

The infidels and hypocrites jihad fought by the four above. However the infidels more specifically faced by hand because overt hostility. While faced with verbal special hypocrite because hidden hostility and giddy in their state under the rule of the Muslims, so proof and fought with their original state dismantled and described their properties, so that people know it and take care of them and of the fall in hypocrisy. [17]

  1. Ibn al-Qayyim expressed that jihad fighting the perpetrators of injustice, kebid’ahan and munkar done with three levels, namely (1) by hand, (2) if you can not then with oral, and (3) if not able to also then with the heart. It is based on the hadeeth of Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudri radi ‘anhu which reads,

سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول من رأى منكم منكرا فليغيره بيده فإن لم يستطع فبلسانه فإن لم يستطع فبقلبه وذلك أضعف الإيمان

I heard the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said, “Who among you who saw a munkar, then let him change it with his hand. If not afford it with his tongue. If not able to also then with his heart and that is the least of weak faith. “(Muslim).

Every Muslim is required to face the perpetrator acts wrongdoers jihad, heresy and unjust according to his ability and with regard kaedah-kaedah commanding the good and forbidding unjust. So the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam explained in the hadith of Ibn Mas’ud radi’ anhu, he said,

أن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم قال ما من نبي بعثه الله في أمة قبلي إلا كان له من أمته حواريون وأصحاب يأخذون بسنته ويقتدون بأمره ثم إنها تخلف من بعدهم خلوف يقولون ما لا يفعلون ويفعلون ما لا يؤمرون فمن جاهدهم بيده فهو مؤمن ومن جاهدهم بلسانه فهو مؤمن ومن جاهدهم بقلبه فهو مؤمن وليس وراء ذلك من الإيمان حبة خردل

Indeed the Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam said, “No prophet of God ever sent to the people before me unless it has defenders (hawariyun) of his people and friends who follow the example of Sunnah and carry out his orders, then come generations of their replacement who say what they do not resume practicing, and practice are not ordered. Who confront them with his hand then he is a believer, who is facing them with his tongue then he is a believer, and who face them with his heart so he is a believer. Nothing after that as small as a mustard seed of faith. “(HR. Muslim, Kitab Al Iman no. 71)

Every Muslim must be able to do this kind of jihad with his heart and it was a way to deny and hate kebid’ahan, brutality and badness with his heart and hope the loss of these things.

Purpose of Jihad [18]

One certainty that God does not oblige and mensyariatkan something without any great purpose. Similarly, jihad is prescribed for certain purposes described the scholars in their statements. Here will be delivered in part of the statement so that we can learn the intent and purpose of jihad in Islam.

  1. Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah stated, “The purpose of jihad is to elevate the word of Allah and make the religion entirely for Allah” [19].
  • He rahimahullah also states, “The purpose of jihad is that nothing is to be worshiped except Allah, so that no one who prays, prayers, prostrations and fasting for other than Allah. Not berumroh and pilgrimage except to his house (the Kaaba), not slaughtered sacrifices except for Him and not a vow and swear except Him … “[20].
  • Sheikh Abdurrahman bin Nasir Al Sa’di stated, “there are two kinds of jihad. First, jihad with the goal to the good and the improvement of the believers in faith, morals, adab (behavior) and the whole world and the next case they and their education both of scientific and amaliyah. This type is the parent of jihad and tonggaknya, and became the basis for the second jihad jihad with the intention of denying people who attack Islam and Muslims from among the disbelievers, hypocrites, mulhid and all the enemies of religion and against them “[21].

  • Shaykh ‘Abdul’ Aziz bin Baaz declared, “Jihad is divided into two, namely jihad tholab ath (attack / attack) and jihad ad daf’u (defense / defense). The purpose of both is to convey the religion of Allah and calling people to follow, eject people from darkness to light and elevate Islam the religion of Allah on earth and make this religion is for God alone, as described in the Qur’an in Surat al-Baqara,

  • وقاتلوهم حتى لا تكون فتنة ويكون الدين لله فإن انتهوا فلا عدوان إلا على الظالمين

    “Fight them so that there is no longer slander and (so) that religion is for God alone. If they cease (from hostile to you), then there is no hostility (again), except against wrongdoers. “(QS. Al-Baqarah: 193)

    And in the Al Anfal,

    وقاتلوهم حتى لا تكون فتنة ويكون الدين كله لله

    “And fight them, that no libel and that religion is solely for Allah.” (QS. Al-Anfal: 39), and a verse to convey to him a lot.

    The Prophet sallallaahu ‘alaihi wa sallam has said,

    أمرت أن أقاتل الناس حتى يشهدوا أن لا إله إلا الله وأن محمدا رسول الله ويقيموا الصلاة ويؤتوا الزكاة فإذا فعلوا ذلك عصموا مني دماءهم وأموالهم إلا بحق الإسلام وحسابهم على الله

    “I was ordered to fight the people to testify that no god worthy of worship but Allah and his messenger Muhammad, enforcing prayers and alms giving. If they had done so, the blood and treasure they’ve kept me except the right of Islam, and their reckoning will be submitted to God. “(Agreed Alaihi) [22]

    From the above description of the scholars is clear that the purpose of jihad is to enforce disyariatkannya Islam on this earth and not for personal revenge or group that takes all the knowledge about the concept of jihad islam in both law, jihad means and provisions of the spoils of war as a consequences of the implementation of the jihad.

    So hopefully useful.

    Author: Ustadz Kholid Syamhudi, Lc

    articles http://www.muslim.or.id

    Catatan Kaki:
    [1] Diambil dari pernyataan Syaikh Al Albani dalam Al Salafiyun Wa Qadhiyah Falestina Fi Waaqi’ina Al Mu’ashir karya Muhammad Kaamil Al Qadhdhaab dan Muhammad ‘Izuddin Al Qassaam, ditakhrij dan diberi Muqaddimah oleh Syaikh Abu Ubaidah Masyhur Hasan Salman, cetakan pertama tahun 1423 H =2002M, penerbit Markaz Baitul Maqdis Liddriasaat Al Tautsiqiyyah hal.65
    [2] Dinukil dari makalah berjudul Dhwabith Jihaad Fi Al Sunnah Al Nabawiyah oleh DR. Muhammad Umar Bazmul hal. 4 menukil dari kitab Al Radd ‘Ala Al Akhna’I oleh Ibnu Taimiyah hal 326-329.
    [3] HR Al Bukhari – kitab Al Ilmu -no. 67 dan Muslim –kitab Al Qasaamah wal Muhaaribin Wal Qishash- bab Taghlidz tahrim Al Dima’ Wal Aghradh Wal Amwal.- no. 1679
    [4] Disarikan dari Al Quthuf Al Jiyaad Min Hikam Wa Ahkam Al Jihad, karya Prof. DR. Abdurrazaq bin Abdil Muhsin Al ‘Abaad, cetakan pertama tahun 1425 H, Dar Al Mughni. Hal 4.
    [5] Al I’lam Bi Fawa’id Umdat Al Ahkam, Ibnu Al Mulaqqin, tahqiq Abdulaziz Ahmad Al Musyaiqih, cetakan pertama tahun 1421H, Dar Al ‘Ashimah, 10/267.
    [6] Muqaddimah Ibnu Rusyd 1/369, kami nukil dari kitab Mauqif Al Muslim Minal Qitaal Fil Fitan, Utsman Mu’allim Mahmud cetakan pertama tahun 1416 H, Dar Al Fath 41 dan majalah Al Asholah edisi 21/IV/ 15 rabi’ul awal 1420 H hal. 43
    [7] Majmu’ Al Fatawa, 10/192-193
    [8] ibid 10/191
    [9] Al Quthuf Al Jiyaad 5.
    [10] Zaadul Ma’ad Fi Hadyi Khoiril ‘Ibaad, Ibnul Qayyim, tahqiq Syu’aib Al Arnauth dan Abdulqadir Al Arnauth, cetakan ketiga tahun 1421H, Muassasat Al Risalah, Bairut 3/9
    [11] Ibid 3/10.
    [12] Ini adalah ungkapan hadits nabi yang diriwayatkan imam Muslim –kitab Al Imaarah-no. 1910.
    [13] Zaad Al Ma’ad 3/9-10.
    [14] Ibid 3/6.
    [15] Al Quthuf Al Jiyaad hal. 15
    [16] Lihat lebih lanjut tulisan Ust. Muslim dalam rubrik Tazkiyatun Nufus pada majalah As Sunnah edisi 09/tahun IX/1426H/2005M hal 55-60.
    [17] Diringkas dari Al Quthuf Al Jiyaad hal 12-13.
    [18] Diambil dari Al Quthuf Al Jiyaad hal. 18-20 secara bebas.
    [19] Lihat Majmu’ Fatawa 15/170
    [20] ibid 35/368
    [21] Wujub Al Ta’awun Baina Al Muslimin- merupakan bagian dari Al majmu’ah Al Kaamilah jilid 5/186
    [22] Majmu’ Fatawa Wa Maqaalat Mutanawi’ah, 18/70.


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